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This page has links to encyclopedia entries and topic page articles in the library's online reference collection, Credo Reference. If you can't find what you're looking for on this page, try a search below.
Second Great Awakening: Topic Page
US religious evangelical revivalist movement, lasting from about 1800 to 1870
Transcontinental Railroad: Topic Page
The largest civil engineering project in western history to that date, the railroad was over 4,800 km/3,000 mi long and crossed deserts, canyons, and mountains, requiring the development of new construction techniques.
The Kansas-Nebraska Act: Topic Page
Bill that became law on May 30, 1854, by which the U.S. Congress established the territories of Kansas and Nebraska.
Trail of Tears: Topic Page
Forced march of Indian tribes from the eastern United States to Oklahoma.
Plains Wars: Topic Page
Series of conflicts between the Plains Indians and the US Army 1850-90, during the era of US westward expansion.
Sand Creek Massacre: Topic Page
Slaughter of 450 Cheyenne and Arapaho by the 3rd Colorado Volunteers under Col John Chivington, during an unprovoked attack on Cheyenne peace chief Black Kettle's camp at Sand Creek, Colorado, on 29 November 1864.
Battle of Little Big Horn: Topic Page
The Battle of the Little Bighorn took place on 25 June 1876. It resulted in the death of about 265 officers and troops of the 7th Cavalry under the command of General George Armstrong Custer. The battle was the most serious defeat of the US army during the war for the Great Plains.
Oregon Trail: Topic Page
Major westward migration route in the USA used by pioneer settlers in the 19th century.
American Civil War: Topic Page
Sometimes called ‘the War Between the States’ or ‘the Second American Revolution’, a conflict in the USA which resolved two great issues: the nature of the Federal Union and the relative power of the states and the central government; and the existence of black slavery.
War of 1812: Topic Page
Armed conflict between the United States and Great Britain, 1812–15.
California Gold Rush: Topic Page
The influx of prospectors to the Sierra Nevada Mountains, California, following the discovery of gold in the American River by US surveyor James Marshall in January 1848.
McCulloch v. Maryland: Topic Page
Case decided in 1819 by the U.S. Supreme Court, dealing specifically with the constitutionality of a Congress-chartered corporation, and more generally with the dispersion of power between state and federal governments.
Lincoln-Douglas Debates: Topic Page
A series of seven debates between the Democrat senator Stephen A Douglas and Republican Abraham Lincoln held August-October during the 1858 race for Illinois State senator.
Movements, Issues, and Systems
Manifest Destiny: Topic Page
In US history, the belief that Americans had a providential mission to extend both their territory and their democratic processes westwards across the continent.
Abolitionism: Topic Page
A movement culminating in the late 18th and early 19th centuries that aimed first to end the slave trade, and then to abolish the institution of slavery and emancipate slaves.
Jim Crow Laws: Topic Page
Legislation passed by southern US states in the late 19th century to enforce racial segregation.
Women's Suffrage: Topic Page
The right of women to vote; Throughout the latter part of the 19th cent. the issue of women's voting rights was an important phase of feminism.