This guide contains basic information about the American Psychological Association (APA) format and style for research papers and for citations. Scroll down for models of citations for different types of sources.
APA style is used for most courses in the sciences, which may include Biology, Business, Chemistry, Communication & Media Studies, Criminology, Economics, Education, Forestry, Linguistics, Nursing, Psychology, Science, Social Science, Sociology. "Style" includes more than just citation formats. It also covers how to write clearly, how to organize and layout your paper or project, punctuation, word choice, spelling, use of fonts, abbreviations and acronyms, critical thinking and fundamentals of research.
APA Citation Style
The American Psychological Association page provides some basic information about the APA research paper and citation format style.
APA style is set and updated as needed by the American Psychological Association, revised in the 7th edition in October 2019. The library has just acquired this edition but the examples here have not yet been updated and are based on the 6th edition.
Click on the tabs above for the type of resource you need to cite.
Main body page:
General format for websites: AuthorLastName, FirstNameInitial. MiddleNameInitial. (year). Article title. [Description of Form]. Title of Web Site. Retrieved date, from http://website.com
* Note: Retrieved date is no longer needed in citations unless the information may change over time, e.g. wikis.
* Remember your instructor may have other preferences, please check with them.
General format for audiovisual media: ProducerLastName, FirstNameInitial. MiddleNameInitial. (Producer), & DirectorLastName, FirstNameInitial. MiddleNameInitial. (year). Title of motion picture. [Motion picture]. Country of Origin: Studio.
Garmon, L. (1994). Secret of the wild child: The revealing story of Genie. [Motion picture]. United States: WGBH Boston Video.
Personal communications can be:
Because personal communications are not retrievable, they are not included in the reference list. However you must parenthetically cite in the main text, for example:
(J. Smith, personal communication, May 4, 2012).
A. Jones insisted that the noise came from outside the house (personal communication, April 20, 2010).
Example of an article citation with a DOI:
Brownlie, D. (2007). Toward effective poster presentations: An annotated bibliography. European Journal of Marketing, 41, 1245-1283. doi:10.1108/03090560710821161
Additional information about DOIs can be found here.
These books can be found on Reserve (behind the Circulation desk) at the Canton Russell Learning Resource Center and Macomb Learning Resource Center.